This page provides the chapter on natural circulation from the "DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow," DOE-HDBK-1012/3-92, U.S. Department of Energy, June 1992.
Other related chapters from the "DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow" can be seen to the right.
Natural circulation is the circulation of fluid within piping systems or open pools that is due to the density changes caused by temperature differences. Natural circulation does not require any mechanical devices to maintain flow.
Forced and Natural Circulation
In the previous chapters on fluid flow, it was explained that any time that fluid flows there is some friction associated with the movement, which will cause head loss. It was pointed out that this head loss is commonly compensated for in piping systems by pumps that do work on the fluid, compensating for the head loss due to friction. Circulation of fluid in systems by pumps is referred to as forced circulation.
It is possible to design some fluid systems in a manner that does not require the presence of pumps to provide circulation. The head required to compensate for the head losses is created by density gradients and elevation changes. Flow that occurs under these circumstances is called natural circulation.
Thermal Driving Head
Thermal driving head is the force that causes natural circulation to take place. It is caused by the difference in density between two bodies or areas of fluid.
Consider two equal volumes of the same type of fluid. If the two volumes are not at the same temperature, then the volume with the higher temperature will also have a lower density and, therefore, less mass. Since the volume at the higher temperature will have a lower mass, it will also have less force exerted on it by gravity. This difference in the force of gravity exerted on the fluid will tend to cause the hotter fluid to rise and the colder fluid to sink.
This effect is seen in many places. One example of this is a hot air balloon. The force causing a hot air balloon to rise is a result of a difference in density between the hot air inside the balloon and the cooler air surrounding it.
Heat added to the air in the balloon adds energy to the molecules of air. The movement of the air molecules increases and the air molecules take up more space. The air molecules inside the balloon take up more space than the same amount of air molecules outside the balloon. This means the hot air is less dense and lighter than the surrounding air. Since the air in the balloon is less dense, gravity has less effect on it. The result is that the balloon weighs less than the surrounding air. Gravity pulls cooler air down into the space occupied by the balloon. The downward movement of the cooler air forces the balloon out of the space previously occupied, and the balloon rises.
Conditions Required for Natural Circulation
Natural circulation will only occur if the correct conditions exist. Even after natural circulation has begun, removal of any one of these conditions will cause the natural circulation to stop. The conditions for natural circulation are as follows.
- A temperature difference exists (heat source and heat sink exists).
- The heat source is at a lower elevation than the heat sink.
- The fluids must be in contact with each other.
There must be two bodies of fluid at different temperatures. This could also be one body of fluid with areas of different temperatures. The difference in temperature is necessary to cause a density difference in the fluid. The density difference is the driving force for natural circulation flow.
The difference in temperature must be maintained for the natural circulation to continue. Addition of heat by a heat source must exist at the high temperature area. Continuous removal of heat by a heat sink must exist at the low temperature area. Otherwise the temperatures would eventually equalize, and no further circulation would occur.
The heat source must be at a lower elevation than the heat sink. As shown by the example of the balloon, a warmer fluid is less dense and will tend to rise, and a cooler fluid is more dense and will tend to sink. To take advantage of the natural movement of warm and cool fluids, the heat source and heat sink must be at the proper elevations.
The two areas must be in contact so that flow between the areas is possible. If the flow path is obstructed or blocked, then natural circulation cannot occur.
Example of Natural Circulation Cooling
Natural circulation is frequently the primary means of cooling for pool-type reactors and for irradiated fuel assemblies stored in pools of water after removal from the reactor. The heat source is the fuel assembly. The heat sink is the bulk of the water in the pool.
Water at the bottom of a fuel assembly absorbs energy generated by the assembly. The water increases in temperature and decreases in density. Gravity pulls cooler (more dense) water into the bottom of the assembly displacing the warmer water. The warmer (lighter) water is forced to give up its position to the cooler (heavier) water. The warmer (lighter) water rises higher in the assembly. As water travels up the length of the assembly, it absorbs more energy. The water becomes lighter and lighter being continuously forced upward by more dense water moving in below it. In turn, the cooler water absorbs energy from the assembly and is also forced to rise as natural circulation flow continues. Water exiting the top of the fuel assembly gives up its energy as it mixes with the bulk of the water in the pool. The bulk of the water in the pool is commonly cooled by circulation through heat exchangers in a separate process.
Flow Rate and Temperature Difference
The thermal driving head that causes natural circulation is due to the density change caused by a temperature difference. In general, the greater the temperature difference between the hot and cold areas of fluid, the greater the thermal driving head and the resulting flow rate. However, it is good practice to keep the hot fluid subcooled to prevent a change of phase from occurring. It is possible to have natural circulation take place in two-phase flow, but it is usually more difficult to maintain flow.
Various parameters can be used to indicate or verify natural circulation is occurring. This is dependent on plant type. For instance for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) selected Reactor Coolant System (RCS) parameters that would be used are as follows.
- RCS ΔT (THot − TCold) should be 25-80% of the full power value and either steady or slowly decreasing. This indicates that the decay heat is being removed from the system at an adequate rate to maintain or reduce core temperatures.
- RCS Hot and Cold leg temperatures should be steady or slowly decreasing. Again, this indicates that heat is being removed and the decay heat load is decreasing as expected.
- Steam generator steam pressure (secondary side pressure) should be following RCS temperature. This verifies that the steam generator is removing heat from the RCS coolant.
If natural circulation for a PWR is in progress or is imminent, several actions can be performed to ensure or enhance core cooling capabilities. First, pressurizer level can be maintained greater than 50%. Secondly, maintain the RCS subcooled by 15°F or greater.
Both of these actions will help ensure steam/vapor pockets are not formed in the RCS where they would restrict RCS flow. Thirdly, maintain steam generator water level ≥ normal range. This provides an adequate heat sink to ensure heat removal is sufficient to prevent boiling of the RCS.